Snake venom consists of proteins, enzymes, substances with a cytotoxic (poisonous to living cells) effect, neurotoxins (which damage nerve cells), and anti-coagulants. Four distinct types of venom act on the body differently. – Proteolytic venoms disrupt tissue integrity. – Hemotoxic venoms affect cardiac tissue, blood vessels, and blood cells. – Neurotoxic venoms damage the central and peripheral nervous systems, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis. – Cytotoxic venoms damage cells at the bite site. Each snake has different amounts of different toxins in its venom. For example, the Mojave rattlesnake’s venom consists primarily of a neurotoxin, while the western diamondback’s venom contains digestive enzymes and anti-coagulants to immobilize its prey. The following components are common in venomous snakes. – Phosphodiesterases cause cardiac pathology and hypotension (loss of blood pressure). – Phospholipase A2 causes hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells) and thrombocytopenia (loss of blood platelets that help the blood clot). – Cholinesterase inhibitors make prey animals lose muscle control. – Hyaluronidase increases tissue permeability and enhances the rate of venom absorption. – Amino acid oxidases and proteases predigest prey.