Symptoms and Treatment of Foxtail Invasions in Dogs

Foxtails are most commonly found in the noses, ears, eyes, mouths, and throats of dogs. Here's how to recognize the symptoms.


While some first aid may be possible in the event of a foxtail wound, in almost all cases you should get your dog to a veterinarian as soon as possible. Delaying treatment allows the foxtail to do further damage; avoiding foxtail treatment altogether could lead to your dog developing a chronic illness or could even lead to death.

Foxtails in the Eyes

RISKS: Irritation, corneal scratches, ulcers, conjunctivitis, blindness.

SYMPTOMS: Squinting, discharge, an eye glued shut.

FIRST AID: Some trail first-aid advocates suggest removing a visible foxtail in the dog’s third eyelid by hand, by using blunt tweezers, or with a damp Q-Tip. However, you risk not removing it completely or driving it deeper. Instead, keep the dog from pawing at the eye and take her immediately to the vet – ideally to a veterinary opthalmologist.

TREATMENT: With a calm dog, the vet will use a numbing agent on the eye and remove the foxtail. A panicked or excitable dog may need sedation.

Foxtails in the Ears

RISK: Chronic irritation, infections, eardrum damage, deafness.

SYMPTOMS: Head tilting or head shaking.

FIRST AID: Squirting mineral oil into the ear to soften the awn is a common recommendation. But Dr. Randy Acker, author of Field Guide to Dog First Aid: Emergency Care for the Outdoor Dog, cautions against it; if the eardrum has been damaged, the oil will do more harm than good. Get to a vet as quickly as possible.

TREATMENT: The vet examines the ear with an otoscope and uses alligator forceps to extract the foxtail. Sedation may be necessary.

Foxtails in the Nose

RISK: Chronic irritation, infections, tissue damage; may migrate into brain.

SYMPTOMS: Violent, explosive, serial sneezing. There may be a slight bloody dischage.

FIRST AID: None. Get to a vet as soon as possible.

TREATMENT: The dog must be sedated, and a topical anesthetic may be needed to numb the inside of the dog’s nose.

Using a rhinoscope, the veterinarian will visually inspect the area and extract the awn using alligator forceps.

Foxtails in the Mouth or Throat

RISKS: Damage to periodontal pockets, the tongue, or throat; infection; can be inhaled into lung.

SYMPTOMS: Hacking, gagging, difficulty swallowing when eating or drinking.

FIRST AID: If the foxtail is visible, you may pull it out by hand or with blunt tweezers. Feeding the dog bread may force the seed to move through the throat and into the stomach. In any case, see a vet for follow-up.

TREATMENT: The vet will anesthetize the dog and remove any foxtails.

Foxtails in Your Dog’s Paws

RISKS: Abscesses, infections.

SYMPTOMS: Continual licking of the foot or pad, bumpy swelling between the toes, or a small hole.

FIRST AID: If you can see the foxtail, you can try to remove it by hand or by using blunt-tipped tweezers. For embedded foxtails, soaking the paw (plain, warm water, 15 minutes, two to three times a day for three days) may promote the formation of an abscess that will eventually burst and expel the awn. If this happens, continue soaking in antiseptic water for several days.

A veterinary checkup is necessary if the foxtail is not expelled or if you see bumps forming in other areas of the paw or leg – a sign that the foxtail is migrating. Follow up with your vet in any case.

TREATMENT: The vet will locate and remove the foxtail.

Foxtails Under the Skin

RISKS: Infections, irritation, migration through the body; if it penetrates the body wall, it may injure a vital organ or cause secondary infection and abscesses.

SYMPTOMS: A hard bump or lump; may include a small hole in its center.


TREATMENT: The vet will surgically explore for the foxtail and remove it when found.


  1. What if you can’t get your dog to a vet immediately? I don’t drive (legally blind), and there’s not always someone around to drive me.

    Excellent article otherwise! I have printed it so it will be handy.

  2. If you are unable to get to a vet right away, don’t leave it in the eye… do your best to remove it safely. To further a better grip, try using a wet, unfolded gauze pad to grab it firmly and pull slowly. Someone must hold dog tightly as it is painful. Then take to vet for them to confirm it’s all out.

  3. I have been lucky. I had a lot of them in my yard but I went out and pulled them out every year that they grew so this year I didn’t find any. I didn’t have any until I got some topsoil. I warned all my friends about them.

    • I took a photo but cannot publish it here. Is similar to wheat growing, but the tips fall apart in to many feather like stems which burrow one way into your pets’ skin, paws, eyes etc. Each stem can be from 1/4 to 1 1/2 inches long. The one removed from my 16 pound dog’s eye socket was the long one. He is fine with no lasting damage because I took him to the vet within 24 hours of noticing symptoms.

    • For those that can’t for whatever reason use google image search, foxtails are essentially the seeds of many types of grasses. Think of the fluffy end of tall grass. Barley is one such example, Foxtail grass being another. When the fluffy seed parts dry out, they fall off the grass stalk in many separate pieces, each shaped like… you guessed it: a fox’s tail. Pointy on one end and sort of frilly on the other. The frills have nearly microscopic barbs on them which prevent the foxtails from being pulled out backwards when they work their pointier end into fur, skin, eyes, etc. As such, they continue to burrow deeper and deeper into their host as they’re manipulated through normal daily activity. If you’ve ever found a stubborn grass seed imbedded in your clothing and needed to push it all the way through the cloth to remove it, it was likely a foxtail. But seriously, just google it and look at a picture.

  4. Same comment here: what does the plant that produces those horrible things look like?
    In February, my dog poked his head into some bushes and came up with them embedded into his snout.. I tried to remove them, but, eventually had to go to the vet. She had to anesthetize him, and took out over 20 of those suckers!
    Please, if I don’t know what the plants look like, how can I get rid of them, or pull them up from the park?

    • Foxtails are a native grass where I live in the Sierra Foothills in CA—they are everywhere. Before I was here, we found them in all rural areas my dog and I were involved in K-9 search work. You know them when the grasses start drying out, usually late spring and early summer. Dangling from each tall stem there are several to many sharply pointed seed encasements with “bristles” flaring out at the other end. They are barbed to travel only forward once they attach to something. Google Images will show them.

  5. I, too, have no idea what Foxtail is, what it looks like or if it grows in upstate NY.
    I will Google it, but hope you will follow up with photos/descriptions of any plant that is dangerous for dogs to encounter!
    Thank you!

    • In Calif they start out as looking likes tall green grass.
      Lawns develops free, then dry out, blow in wind and can cause the damages described.
      It is best to mow them before arms produced.
      If not raked, as mostbare not in large field, they blow and produce even more.

    • They aren’t as common in NY. I never had to deal with them until I moved west. California is the worst (as far as I’ve seen out here). In Colorado they were something to watch for but california they almost feel unavoidable. Ticks are the worst in upstate NY. Know the demons in your neck of the woods and how to handle them! Ticks seem like no big deal now…. ugh! F these foxtails!

  6. Jesus people! Why the hell do you just go online and google FOXTAIL PHOTOS AND DESCRIPTIONS

    • Your comment is VERY rude and unnecessary. MANY of us DON’T just know what this is and we don’t need to be belittled for our lack of knowledge. That’s why we’re asking. IF YOU HAVE NOTHING NICE TO COMMENT, DON’T COMMENT AT ALL!

      • Neen813, I couldn’t agree more. Whoever wrote that comment “amazed and astounded” is a nasty SOB. I lived in NYC 28 years and currently in Charlotte, NC. I also have a successful background in research and writing. My rescue dogs have always meant EVERYTHING to me! I’m no kid, have always had “rescue dogs” and NEVER heard of “Foxtail”. The article is sorely lacking. We pay to get the WDJ and this is all the writer could come up with? Very sloppy — shame on WDJ for allowing it to be printed. Sure, I’ll Bing or Google it — but we pay WDJ to offer us well researched info. They are no longer what they used to be. Can’t count on them anymore.

      • Just amazing how some people are obvious to other people’s situation, and the common knowledge is from their environment past and present, you don’t know the person or where they live, so we don’t want to hear any rude comments about something you don’t have a clue about.

    • no kidding. point is the article is ABOUT FOXTAIL. it’s not that we don’t know how to research it’s just that the article seems incomplete without an image of the offender. i love wdj so much. just an oversight.

    • Many people are not aware of foxtails and what they look like we call it sticker grasslremoved 6 0f them and she doing a lil better, however there is 2 areas of penetration vet gave her antibioctics my real ? Is little is known about the harm foxtails can cause there should be more of an awareness my dog is 13 and i was clueless of it

      • I too found out by accident about how dangerous they are,
        by looking up what might be causing my small dog to cough and that came up as a cause if getting it in there throat! had no idea they are this dangerous to pets! she had gotten some on her paws and was trying to pull it off with her teeth!

      • I hate to be the one to point this extremely well-known fact to you, being that I am 50 something myself: The only stupidity lies in one who does NOT ask the questions but rather goes on without gaining knowledge by asking questions.
        I am a pretty smart gal, married to a brilliant lawyer for many years, and have owned German Shepherds in CA for about 50yrs. I have very close friends that are K9 handlers for the police dept and have been through obedience and protection training with numerous dogs and top notch trainers.
        Never before this year, after moving onto property covered in foxtails, had I heard anything about their danger to animals. I’ve often decorated my home with fresh flowers using foxtails as a beautiful filler and had huge dried foxtail arrangements in more than one home, never knowing what it was called or that it was potentially harmful to my beloved pack. Until now, and having my 1st dog ever covered in foxtails last season. The only stupid thing I could have done in the situation is not get informed about foxtails. And I don’t appreciate being called names without the opportunity to slap you upside the head. So, please save your invaluable opinions until we get to meet one day. Tks

  7. I would also like to offer up some complementary therapy advice. The homeopathic preparation of Silica is used to expel foreign bodies. It can be quite powerful and should be used with caution if pacemakers etc. are present. Even if Silica doesn’t completely expel the fox tail, it might at least make it easier to remove. Don’t knock it till you try it!

  8. My 3 dogs and I hike in CA-foxtail central:( I have a friend in upstate NY who never heard of them, but she has had to deal with a few porcupine encounters.
    I read about OutFox (a tough mesh net that encloses dog head, they don’t mind it) 2 years ago here at Whole Dog Journal and since wearing them while hiking, no foxtail has invaded ear canals or nose, saving me from the previous average of at least one foxtail related vet bill per dog per month, during our 3-4 month foxtail season. One still has to check paws regularly as foxtails love the space between toes, as well as groom the coat, but that doesn’t require a vet. I found that ShowSheen, a horse grooming product really makes grooming my mix with fluffy collie type hair that burrs really stick to much easier.

  9. Last summer I used an Out Fox mask on my dog and had no trouble with foxtails in eyes, ears, nose and mouth. Still had to check his paws.
    You can read about the mask at the website

  10. In Nevada foxtails can mean cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) or foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) or in S. NV red brome (Bromus rubens). All three have the same result – penetration into the dogs paws, ears, mouth, eyes, belly, etc. The foxtail barley needs more water than is seen on the open ranges so is found around irrgated lawns, pastures, etc, while the bromes do just fine with the scant precipitation that we get here every year. Both bromes turn red to purple once they are dried up and ready to go into your dog. Can’t see a way to post pics or would do so.

  11. I’ve ordered WDJ for YEARS. . .from NYC to PA to Baltimore to 9 years in Charlotte. WHAT THE HELL IS FOXTAIL? Your highly priced monthly shouldn’t publish assumptions that everyone knows what something like “Foxtail” even IS!! Husband is taking a nap with doggy, so I’ll go over this with him when he wakes up. Who the heck is running the show at your once wonderful publication.? I’ll guess a “Milllenial”? For God’s sake, don’t mess up people’s lives (or God forbid, doggies) if you’re not going to give complete information!

    • I agree with the people who suggested simply doing a search for images of foxtail + pets ( or grass or stickers)

      If your search found this site, then another search should easily help you find images of foxtail grasses.

      Like someone said, foxtails are a grass that grows a sticker head and looks like (a fox tail) wheat, rye and even oats.

      All of those grains are also grasses, and each of them also make foxtail stickers that can get in your pets eyes, ears, noses, throats, paws, and skin.

      Look up images. Foxtail + stickers

      Also, I am going to try the homeopathic silica someone suggested.
      It could be a generally helpful remedy to keep around for every summer, here in the golden west. (Golden = golden state = dry grass in the summertime = stickers! )
      Love your critters

  12. thank you for bringing this article to my/our attention. I had never heard of foxtail before. If I have other qeuestions about it I will ask my Vet.