[Updated November 16, 2017]
TRAINING SMALL DOGS: OVERVIEW
1. Commit to giving your little dog a bigger life by providing him with good manners training that makes him welcome anywhere dogs are allowed.
2. Respect your little dog’s needs and preferences; don’t coerce him just because he’s little and easily overpowered.
3. Protect your little dog appropriately from unwanted attention and potential threats.
A long time ago, I was a “big dog person.” For the first three decades of my life, I looked disdainfully down on yappy little foo-foo dogs and the people who owned them. Then I fell in love with and adopted Dusty, an 8-pound Pomeranian, and my whole perspective shifted, as did some of my long-held paradigms on small dog behavior, training, and management. I came to appreciate the behavior of owners who snatched their tiny toy breeds off the floor at the approach of a bigger dog. I was constantly worried for my little dog’s safety. I was certain one of our bigger dogs would play with him too roughly and crush him. Or worse – some unknown dog could kill him with a grab-and-shake move. And it was so easy to pick him up and carry him that I did it frequently. The concept of having an “arm-dog” began to make perfect sense to me.
Today, I’m keenly aware that some little dogs – and their owners – play right into the small dog stereotype. Many small dogs I see in public are ill-mannered with humans, reactive toward other dogs, and yappy. Lots of little dogs strain on their leashes, don’t come when called, and think “sit” is something their owners do so the human can bend over and pet them.
But it doesn’t have to be this way. Every little dog is as capable of learning basic and advanced training behaviors as big dogs – and it’s just as important for their long-term well being and safety. Dusty had his AKC Companion Dog degree, and was well on his way to Companion Dog Excellent before bad hips curtailed his jumping and cut his show career short.
If you doubt a little dog’s ability to learn, just watch any canine competition. You’ll be amazed by the number of diminutive canines who compete successfully in obedience, agility, rally, flyball, canine freestyle, nose work and more. (In fact, every flyball competitor wants a little dog on her team, because the jump heights for the whole team are set at the proper height for the smallest dog in the group!)
Positive training techniques are equally effective for all sizes of dogs; all dogs learn in a similar fashion. That said, some minor modifications to training and management can make the relationship-building and training process more successful for little dogs. Whether your goal is a well-mannered family companion, competition titles, or both, if you keep the following concepts and tips in mind you and your little dog can be more successful and have more fun playing the training game together.
But before I describe these tips, let’s define some terms.
Defining “Small Dog”
Let’s arbitrarily define “little dog” as one that weighs 25 pounds or less. This encompasses a wide range of breeds, from the tiny, truly fragile 2-pound teacup Yorkie to the short and sturdy 20- to 25-pound Scottish Terrier. It includes dogs with such varied personalities as the independent and pugnacious Jack Russell Terrier, the more dignified and amiable Pug, the independent and aloof Basenji, the energetic and responsive Toy Poodle, and the relatively phlegmatic French Bulldog, to name just a few. That doesn’t even take into consideration the infinite combinations of small mixed-breed dogs or the wide range of individual personalities within a given breed.
A Pomeranian once seemed quite small to me, but recent decades have seen a proliferation of smaller and smaller dogs – the so-called “teacup” breeds. At a local humane society “Bark In The Park” fund-raising event recently, a couple walked past my booth with a pair of tiny Yorkies in their arms. The male, the “larger” of the two, was three pounds at full maturity. The female was a mere two pounds. They made Scooter, my current Pomeranian, who tips the scales at a whopping 12 pounds, look quite massive by comparison!
Next, let’s define “training.” Owners of larger dogs are likely to understand training as encompassing everything including polite “good manners” behaviors in the house, coming when called, walking nicely on leash, and calmly greeting new people and other dogs. But owners of small dogs might have no behavior expectations of their little companions beyond potty training – and maybe not even that! After all, jumping up is much easier to accept from a 5-pound dog than 50-pound one, so lots of little dog owners don’t bother to teach a polite greeting.
In my opinion, all dogs, even tiny ones, should be trained to exhibit all the same good manners behaviors as larger dogs, such as sitting politely to greet visitors, or asking permission for sofa privileges. For optimum quality of life and his relationship with you, it’s every bit as important for the little dog to be trained as the large one.
Considering A Little Dog?
There are a number of advantages to sharing your life with a little dog:
1. They take up less room! You can have several in the same amount of space as one Great Dane. They share your bed without hogging it. They sit on your lap and still leave room for the newspaper.
2. They don’t eat as much, so they are less expensive to feed.
3. You can get by with smaller backyards, and often (though not always) lower fences.
4. Little dog poops are tiny and inoffensive, even in the house – you can pick up their mini-feces with a tissue and ﬂush them down the toilet. And it’s easier to train a little dog than a Mastiff to use a litterbox, if that suits your lifestyle.
5. You are much less likely to worry about counter-surﬁng.
6. Your little dog is less likely to knock over your 93-year-old Great Aunt Helen when she comes to visit (although a little dog can run under her feet and trip her up).
7. The little dog is highly portable; you can ﬁt him under an airline seat, in your shopping cart, or in a doggie backpack. You can still drive a sports car!
8. Finally, your little dog is less intimidating to people who are fearful of dogs, and more acceptable to landlords, hotels, motels, outdoor cafes, and other public places.
Of course, there are also some disadvantages.
– Little dogs do break more easily, especially those with very ﬁne bones, such as Chihuahuas and Italian Greyhounds.
– Because of their small size, they can be mistakenly perceived as good pets for children. Some of them can be, but they’re not automatically the right choice for small humans – it depends on the individual dog, a good socialization program, and the child’s ability to be gentle with and careful around a tiny dog.
– Their reputation
as yappy and snappy ankle-biters is not entirely undeserved; they can become defensively aggressive if they feel threatened – and it’s easy to feel threatened when you are surrounded by human and canine giants who are anywhere from 10 to 100-plus times your size. Because the dogs are small, their owners tend to be permissive and overprotective, overlooking and excusing behaviors that larger dogs could never get away with.
8 Tips for Training Little Dogs
Fortunately, training is not any more difficult to accomplish with a small dog than with a big one, with the following adjustments:
1. Minimize Your Inner Primate. Primate body language (such as a direct approach, looming over the dog, eye contact, assertive gestures and voice) is intimidating to any dog who has not learned to read and interpret “human.” It’s even more so to the little dog. The smaller the canine, the more threatening our natural human body language can be. When you are training your little dog, at least until he learns to read and trust you, conscientiously use soft eye contact; make your gestures and voice small and soft rather than large and effusive; turn slightly sideways to him; and squat instead of looming over your dog to interact with him.
2. Use Tiny Treats. I constantly remind dog owners to use small (pea-sized) pieces of food treats and perhaps incorporate some of his regular food into his portion of treats. When you use training treats with your little dog the treats must be very tiny – perhaps the size of a quarter of a pea! Also, you may need to reduce or even eliminate some of his meals, based on how many treats you feed him during training. Otherwise you’re likely to fill him up far too quickly, and pack on the pounds, as well.
3. Make Yourself Smaller. If you always train your little dog standing up, you are guaranteed to end up with a sore back. Exercises like luring the down and practicing puppy push-ups (sit-down, sit-down, sit-down) can be especially backbreaking. In the beginning, sit on the floor with your dog to save your back, and to make yourself less intimidating to him. You can also work with your little dog while you sit on a stool or chair, or you can put him on a raised surface where he is comfortable, such as a table, sofa, or bed.
4. Use Reach-Extending Tools. You also need to train standing up – at least some of the time. Your dog needs to learn to walk politely with you; even a little dog can damage his throat if he constantly strains at the leash. The better his leash manners are, the more fun it will be to take him places, and the less likely he’ll become an arm-dog. Teach him to target and then use your target stick to help him learn to walk with you, without having to bend over. Simply put the target stick where you want him to be. You can also smash a soft treat onto the end of the stick for delivery to your little dog without having to bend over, or just drop treats on the floor. Another trip to your chiropractor averted!
5. Take Advantage of little dog Training Tools. Little dogs need lightweight collars and leashes. It’s easy to underestimate the impact of a standard-weight leather leash if it accidentally bumps into your dog’s face, or, worse, if you drop your end and it falls on him. His training tools and toys should be scaled appropriately to his size. Fortunately, pet suppliers have gotten wonderfully creative with little dog products like toy-dog-size tennis balls and squeaky toys, and narrow, lightweight nylon leashes.
6. Teach Your little dog A “Pick-Up Warning” Cue. Of course you’re going to pick him up sometimes – it’s what we little dog owners do. You can minimize pick-up stress for your dog by using a “pick-up warning” cue. Choose your cue (I use “Okay!” for Scooter) and use it every time you pick him up. Place your hands around him as if you’re going to pick him up, give your cue, and then put a little pressure under him but don’t pick him up yet. This gives him time to realize you are picking him up, so he isn’t startled. When you can see he’s aware of the pending lift, go ahead and pick him up. Eventually the cue itself will be enough to prepare him. When I put my hands on Scooter and say “Okay!” he actually boosts himself off the ground a little, into my hands.
7. Respect His Needs and Preferences. Owners of little dogs often complain that they can’t train their dogs to lie down. Think of it from the dog’s perspective: he’s already tiny and vulnerable; well, he’s even more so when he’s lying down. Plus, lots of small dogs are sensitive to cold, and to hard or rough surfaces. Try teaching him to lie down on a soft, raised surface, where he’ll be more comfortable and feel less threatened. The raised surface gives you the added advantage of being able to move your lure below “ground level” to maximize the “down” potential.
8. Allow Him to Say “No.” One of the reasons “arm-dogs” have a reputation for being snappy is that they are often forced to greet people while restrained in their human’s arms. If they are at all fearful or feel threatened in any way, they cannot escape – whereas a dog on the ground, on or off leash, can move away or duck behind his owner to escape unwanted attentions. Ask your potential greeters to kneel down, make themselves small, and let your little dog approach them. If he chooses not to greet, don’t force him.
Housetraining Small Dogs Can Be a Challenge
Housetraining small dogs is sometimes difﬁcult — but not because they are any less capable than bigger dogs of learning where and when it’s appropriate or inappropriate to go potty. If your little dog’s housetraining is giving you headaches, it may be because:
Little dog signals are harder to see. If a Bloodhound sits and stares at your face and drools in your lap while you are reading the paper, sending “I have to pee” signals, you probably notice. If a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel sits and stares your ankle, it’s easy to miss.
Big dog owners have more reason to be motivated. A tiny Chihuahua puddle behind the guest bed may not be discovered for weeks or months (or maybe never). The Great Pyrenees lake in the kitchen is impossible to miss. It’s a simple matter to pick up a teeny terrier turd, toss it in the toilet and dismiss the mistake. A moist, massive Mastiff mound is an entirely different matter.
Little dogs may have smaller holding capacities. Although you would expect their organ capacity to be proportionate to their size and intake, bottom line is that some of them do seem to need to go out on a more frequent potty schedule.
Little dog owners are more likely to supervise less, and use crates that are too large (in which the teeny Toy puppy can poop and pee in one end and sleep and play happily in the other) or not crate at all. “A little pup can’t possibly be as much trouble as a big one, can he? (wrong!), and besides, we want Shrimp to sleep with us!” Later, maybe, but not until he’s house-trained!
Little dog owners are more likely to paper-train and continue to rely on paper-training, sending a mixed message about inside-elimination versus outside-elimination.
Little dogs are more likely to have had their den-soiling inhibitions damaged prior to purchase or adoption by the owner as a result of over-crating and dirty puppy mill conditions. If a dog is required to live in his own excrement and urine, he comes to think that living in ﬁlth is normal, and he won’t make an effort to “hold it” until he has access to a more suitable environment. This makes housetraining very difﬁcult. Little dogs, by virtue of their size, are more popular as pet store and puppy mill breeds – both environments where they are more likely to be over-crated.
The answer to housetraining the little dog is scrupulous management. Constant supervision, through the appropriate use of leashes, crates, tethers, direct supervision, and regular trips to the outdoor bathroom spot — every hour on the hour, at ﬁrst, if necessary. Pay close attention so you don’t miss your dog’s signals. All the other regular housetraining tips also apply, of course – feed regular meals instead of free-choice feeding; pick up water before bedtime, switch to a different kind of crate substrate if necessary, and clean soiled spots with enzyme-based cleaners meant for animal messes.
Companion Dog Basics
Keep in mind that managing your small dog (like every dog) is just as important as training him. If his potty-training isn’t rock-solid, keep him out of situations when he’s likely to “make a mistake.” Prevent him from being rewarded by the behaviors you don’t want, and consistently and generously reward the behaviors you do want, with treats, attention, toys, or a nap on the sofa.
This means turning your back on the jumper and petting him (and/or giving a treat) only when he sits – and making sure guests do the same. He will soon learn to sit for attention. Be sure to pay attention to him when he does!
It also means body-blocking your dog when you see the “sofa gleam” in his eye – by moving into the open sofa space and/or not making your lap available – until he sits, and then inviting him up (assuming he is allowed up). Be sure to notice when he sits (as small as he is, it’s easy to overlook him when he’s sitting politely), and invite him up as his reward.
Every little dog also needs to be well-socialized. Treat him like a dog! From early puppyhood, make sure that he has lots of positive experiences with other dogs, to help dispel the aggressive “arm-dog” image of the angry Pomeranian nestled in the ample and befurred bosom of the wealthy dowager.
Your little dog needs to have his feet on the ground a good part of the time so he can learn to go up and down stairs, get into cars, and walk on grass, dirt, gravel, carpeting, wood, and tile floors. Take him hiking. Dusty could easily hold his own on an all-day wilderness hike with the rest of our pack.
Have him meet lots of friendly people – all ages, shapes, sizes, and races – armed with lots of tasty treats in lots of controlled circumstances. A good rule of thumb for socialization is to expose your pup to at least 100 different kinds of settings and types of people in his first four months of life. At the same time, of course, protect him from dangerous situations, such as encounters with larger dogs who truly could hurt him. (See “Conditioning Confidence in Your Dog or Puppy,” WDJ June 2009.)
Play It Safe and Smart
One of the reasons little dogs sometimes have attitudes about big dogs is that owners tend to panic when they see a big dog approaching. The owner’s stress transmits to the little dog, who then becomes anxious himself. If you grab your dog every time another dog approaches, it can be even more stressful for him and increase the potential for a confrontation.
Little dogs sometimes do get savaged by big dogs because their owners forget to think or to anticipate and avoid hazards to their little companions. “Be smart” means don’t take your little dog places that you know are frequented by large, uncontrolled dogs. Use your local dog park only if there is a separate fenced area for little dogs.
If you’re walking your dog on the street and you see someone approaching with a large dog, take evasive action – calmly cross the street while you practice good heeling so you can pass at a safe distance. Be on guard even at canine competition events, where you might think your dog is safe. He’s not. There are multiple stories of little dogs being attacked, injured, or even killed, by larger dogs at canine competitions.
If you see a loose dog approaching, look for an escape route – a place of business or fenced yard you can step into for safety. Toss a handful of tasty treats away from you to slow down the approaching dog and give you and your little guy time to escape. Carry an aversive spray, a pop-open umbrella, or marine air horn that can thwart a persistent canine visitor. (Be sure to give your own dog a positive classical association with the aversive first, so you don’t scare the stuffing out of him if you have to use it.)
Only as a last resort should you pick your dog up; doing so also puts you at risk for injury if the approaching dog is intent on mayhem. Not that the risk of injury would stop any of us “little dog people” from protecting our beloved little ones. Our own safety is often the last thing we think about when our canine family members are threatened. Their diminutive size only heightens the protective instinct that motivates us to risk life and limb for them.
During his 14 years with us, Dusty convinced me that he was much sturdier than I imagined, and that he was every bit a Real Dog in his little dog body. Go ahead, big dog people, scoff at us if you want. It’s only a matter of time before you meet the little dog who steals your heart the way Dusty stole mine.
Pat Miller, CBCC-KA, CPDT-KA, is WDJ’s Training Editor. She lives in Fairplay, Maryland, site of her Peaceable Paws training center, where she offers dog training classes and courses for trainers. Pat is also author of many books on positive training.